Arrays in JavaScript

Arrays in JavaScript


5 min read

Play this article

Arrays are one of the fundamental data structures in JavaScript, allowing you to store and manipulate collections of data efficiently. In this blog post, we'll explore everything you need to know about arrays in JavaScript, from creating and manipulating them to common array methods.

What is an Array in JavaScript?

An array in JavaScript is a data structure that holds an ordered collection of values, which can be of any data type, such as numbers, strings, objects, or even other arrays. Arrays are versatile and are used to store, access, and manipulate data in various ways.

Creating Arrays

There are several ways to create arrays in JavaScript. Let's look at the most common methods:

1. Array Literal:

You can create an array using square brackets [] and adding elements separated by commas.

const fruits = ["apple", "banana", "orange", "kiwi"];

2. new Array() Constructor:

You can use the new Array() constructor to create an array.

const cars = new Array("Toyota", "Honda", "Ford", "Chevrolet");

3. Array.from():

The Array.from() method allows you to create an array from an iterable object, like a string or another array.

const numbers = Array.from("12345"); // Creates an array: [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]

Accessing Array Elements

You can access array elements using square brackets and the index of the element, where the index starts at 0 for the first element.

console.log(fruits[0]); // Output: "apple"

Modifying Arrays

Arrays in JavaScript are mutable, which means you can change their elements.

Adding Elements:

You can add elements to the end of an array using the push() method.

fruits.push("grape"); // Adds "grape" to the end of the "fruits" array

Removing Elements:

You can remove elements from the end of an array using the pop() method or from the beginning using the shift() method.

fruits.pop(); // Removes the last element from the "fruits" array
fruits.shift(); // Removes the first element from the "fruits" array

Array Methods

JavaScript provides many built-in methods for working with arrays. Here are some commonly used methods:

  1. push(): Adds elements to the end of an array.

     const fruits = ['apple', 'banana'];
     // fruits is now ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry']
  2. pop(): Removes and returns the last element of an array.

     const fruits = ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry'];
     const removedFruit = fruits.pop();
     // removedFruit is 'cherry', fruits is ['apple', 'banana']
  3. shift(): Removes and returns the first element of an array.

     const fruits = ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry'];
     const removedFruit = fruits.shift();
     // removedFruit is 'apple', fruits is ['banana', 'cherry']
  4. unshift(): Adds elements to the beginning of an array.

     const fruits = ['banana', 'cherry'];
     // fruits is now ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry']
  5. concat(): Combines arrays and returns a new array.

     const fruits = ['apple', 'banana'];
     const moreFruits = ['cherry', 'orange'];
     const allFruits = fruits.concat(moreFruits);
     // allFruits is ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry', 'orange']
  6. slice(): Creates a new array from a portion of an existing array.

     const fruits = ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry', 'orange'];
     const selectedFruits = fruits.slice(1, 3);
     // selectedFruits is ['banana', 'cherry']
  7. splice(): Modifies an array by adding, removing, or replacing elements.

     const fruits = ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry'];
     fruits.splice(1, 1, 'orange', 'grape');
     // fruits is now ['apple', 'orange', 'grape', 'cherry']
     // Syntax: Array.splice(start, removeCount, newItem, newItem, newItem, ...)
     //adding without removing? just put removeCount as 0(zero). It will not
     // remove any item from the array and will add the given items.
  8. indexOf(): Returns the index of the first occurrence of an element.

     const fruits = ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry'];
     const index = fruits.indexOf('cherry');
     // index is 2
  9. lastIndexOf(): Returns the index of the last occurrence of an element.

     const fruits = ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry', 'banana'];
     const lastIndex = fruits.lastIndexOf('banana');
     // lastIndex is 3
  10. includes(): Checks if an element exists in an array.

    const fruits = ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry'];
    const includesBanana = fruits.includes('banana');
    // includesBanana is true
  11. join(): Joins all elements of an array into a string.

    const fruits = ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry'];
    const fruitString = fruits.join(', ');
    // fruitString is 'apple, banana, cherry'
    //you can also use "spread" operator.
    const myArray = ["JavaScript", "is", "awesome"];
    //o/p:JavaScript is awesome
  12. reverse(): Reverses the order of elements in an array.

    const fruits = ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry'];
    // fruits is now ['cherry', 'banana', 'apple']
  13. sort(): Sorts the elements of an array.

    const fruits = ['cherry', 'apple', 'banana'];
    // fruits is now ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry']
  14. filter(): Creates a new array with all elements that pass a test.

    const numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
    const evenNumbers = numbers.filter((num) => num % 2 === 0);
    // evenNumbers is [2, 4]
  15. map(): Creates a new array by applying a function to each element.

    const numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
    const squaredNumbers = => num * num);
    // squaredNumbers is [1, 4, 9, 16, 25]
  16. reduce(): Reduces an array to a single value based on a function.

    const numbers = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
    const sum = numbers.reduce((total, num) => total + num, 0);
    // sum is 15
  17. forEach(): Executes a provided function once for each array element.

    const fruits = ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry'];
    fruits.forEach((fruit) => {
    // Outputs: 'apple', 'banana', 'cherry'
  18. every(): Checks if all elements meet a condition.

    const ages = [25, 30, 35, 40];
    const isAdult = ages.every((age) => age >= 18);
    // isAdult is true
  19. some(): Checks if at least one element meets a condition.

    const ages = [12, 16, 20, 8];
    const hasAdult = ages.some((age) => age >= 18);
    // hasAdult is true
  20. find(): Returns the first element that meets a condition.

    const fruits = ['apple', 'banana', 'cherry'];
    const result = fruits.find((fruit) => fruit === 'banana');
    // result is 'banana'

Iterating Over Arrays

You can iterate over the elements of an array using loops like for, for...of, or methods like forEach(), map(), filter(), and reduce().

const myArray = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50];

for (let i = 0; i < myArray.length; i++) {
  // Access and process each element using myArray[i]


Arrays are essential for handling collections of data in JavaScript. By understanding how to create, modify, and utilize arrays and their methods effectively, you'll have a powerful tool at your disposal for various programming tasks.

(Note: In some examples, the arrow function is used. If you don't know arrow function, don't worry. In the upcoming post I will explain the arrow function too.)